Cyberhorn Museum
HORN HISTORY: intro | origins | crooks | valves | doubles | tuben
            MORE: articles |
horn books | historic instruments | music terms | HORNPAGE

horn pedals

Index of Common
Musical Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Z |

Can't find your term here? Try:
Other Online Resources
Still can't find a term you are looking for?
get this book:

The A to Z of Foreign Musical Terms
by Christine Ammer
ECS Publishing, Boston MA
ISBN 0-911318-15-1 






Horn Gear

Hornplanet Products



8va ottava
ab [Ger] from, down, off, exit.
abdämpfen [Ger] to mute, dampen.
aber [Ger] but.
a cappella [It] voices without instrumental accompaniment.
accelerando [It] (accel.) accelerate, gradually get faster.
adagio [It] a slow tempo, quicker than a largo but slower than andante.
alla [It] in the style of.
alla marcia [It] in march style.
allargando [It] getting broader.
allegretto [It] fairly fast, but not as fast as allegro.
allegro [It] fast.
allmählich [Ger] gradually, little by little.
amoroso [It] loving, tender, affectionate.
andante [It] at a walking pace.
andantino [It] diminutive of andante - ambiguously either slower or faster than that would indicate, though generally faster.
ánima [It] soul; con ánima: soulful, with feeling.
animando [It] getting more lively.
animato [It] lively, animated.
animé [Fr] lively, animated.
a piacere [It] literally, "at pleasure," particularly in regard to tempo and rubato.
appassionato [It] with passion.
arco bow (of a string instrument), usually used after pizzicato to indicate a return to bowing.
assai [It] quite, very, sufficiently.
a tempo [It] in time, usually used after a slowing of the tempo to indicate a return to the original tempo.
attacca [It] continue immediately to the next movement or section.
Ausdruck [Ger] expression.
ausdrucksvoll [Ger] full of expression.
avec [Fr] with.

B A C K to T O P


belebend [Ger] lively.
bewegt [Ger] in motion, agitated.
bien [Fr] well, good, thoroughly.
bouchés [Fr] stopped horn (hand muted, or with brass mute), sometimes: sons bouchés.
bravura [It] brilliance.
brillante [It] brilliant.
brio [It] vigor.

B A C K to T O P



cadenza [It] a flourish for the solo instrument, usually unmeasured and without accompaniment.
calando [It] dying away (in volume and tempo).
calme [Fr] calm
cantabile [It] in a singing style.
capriccioso [It] in a whimsical style.
cédez [Fr] give way, slow down.
chanté [Fr] in a singing style. Also: chantant, chanter.
come prima [It] as at first.
come sopra [It] as above.
cómodo [It] comfortable, easy, with composure.
con [It] with.
corda, corde [It] string, strings.
crescendo (cresc., cres.) [It] gradually getting louder.
cuivré [Fr] brassy (sometimes used with bouchés).

B A C K to T O P



da capo (D.C.) [It] from the beginning.
dal segno (D.S.) [It] from the sign, indicates a repeat from the sign.
Dämpfer [Ger] mute.
decrescendo (decresc., decres.) [It] gradually getting softer.
détaché [Fr] detached, staccato.
diminuendo (dim.) [It] gradually getting softer.
distinto [It] clear, distinct.
divisi (div.) [It] divided (into two or more groups), usually a direction to string players.
dolce [It] sweet.
dolcissimo (dolciss.) [It] literally, "sweetest."

B A C K to T O P


in the




en dehors [Fr] to the front, play out.
energico [It] energetic.
espressivo (espress. espr.) [It] expressive.
etwas [Ger] somewhat.

B A C K to T O P



f forte (ff, fff... fortissimo) [It] strong, loud dynamic level.
fine [It] end.
fliessend [Ger] flowing.
forte [It] (usu. f) loud.
fortepiano (fp) [It] loud, then immediately soft.
fortissimo (ff, fff...) [It] literally, "loudest," but taken to mean very loud .
    with fff louder than ff etc.
forzando, forzato (fz) [It] forced, sharply accented.
fp [It] fortepiano.
fuoco [It] fire.
furioso [It] furious, frenzied.
fz [It] forzando.

B A C K to T O P



gestopft [Ger] stopped (as in hand muting the horn).
[It] playful.
giojoso [It] joyful.
giusto [It] strict, just.
glissando [pseudo-It.] rapid scale passage produced, e.g., on a harp by sweeping the fingers. across the strings.
G.P. [Ger. - Generalpause] used to indicate that all instruments are silent at that point.
grandioso [It] grandly.
grave [It] very slow and solemn.
grazioso [It] graceful.

B A C K to T O P



heilig [Ger] holy, sacred.
hervor [Ger] to the fore, bring out.
hervortretend [Ger] prominently, standing out.
herzlich [Ger] heartfelt, warm, sincere.

B A C K to T O P



immer [Ger] always, constantly.
incalzando [It] growing in intensity and fervor.
innig [Ger] sincere, heartfelt.

B A C K to T O P



Jagd [Ger] the hunt.
Jagdhorn [Ger] hunting horn.
Jagdstück [Ger] hunting piece.

B A C K to T O P



kaum [Ger] scarsely, barely.
[Ger] fearless, impudent, bold.
kräftig [Ger] strongly, forcefully, vigorous.
kurz [Ger] short, brief.

B A C K to T O P


lacrimoso [It] sad.
lamentoso [It] lamenting.
largamente [It] broadly.
larghetto [It] rather slow, but a little faster than largo.
largo [It] slow and stately.
lebhaft [Ger] lively, animated.
lebhafter [Ger] more lively.
legatissimo [It] as smoothly as possible.
legato [It] smooth, connected.
leggiero [It] light.
lento [It] slow.
l'istesso [It] the same.
loco [It] used after an 8va or similar, to indicate return to the written register.
lunga [It] long.
lusingando [It] soothing, coaxing, persuasive.

B A C K to T O P


select titles

in the




ma [It] but.
mano destra [It] right hand.
mano sinistra [It] left hand.
marcato [It] marked, accented.
martellato [It] literally, "hammered," i.e., strongly accented.
marziale [It] in a military style.
m.d. [It] mano destra.
meno [It] less.
mesto [It] sad.
mezza, mezzo [It] moderately, literally: "half."
mf mezzo forte, i.e., moderately loud.
mit [Ger] with.
misterioso [It] mysterious.
molto [It] much, very.
morendo [It] dying away.
mosso [It] motion.
mp mezzo piano, [It] i.e., moderately soft.
m.s. [It] mano sinistra.

B A C K to T O P



niente [It] nothing.
non [It] not.



obbligato [It] literally, obligatory, often refers to a prominent, and often very ornamental solo or countermelody. Often mispelled obligato.
ossia [It] alternatively.
ostinato [It] obstinate, persistent.
ottava (8va) [It] octave (higher than written).
ottava bassa [It] octave lower than written.
ouvert [Fr] open, without mute.

B A C K to T O P



p [It] piano, soft.
parlando [It] in a speaking style (of singing).
pausa [It] pause.
pedale [It] (Ped.) pedal.
per [It] by, for.
perdendosi [It] dying away.
pesante [It] heavy.
piacevole [It] pleasant.
piano [It] (usu. p) soft.
pianissimo (pp, ppp...) [It] literally, "softest," but taken to mean very soft with ppp softer than pp etc.
più [It] more.
pizzicato (pizz.) [It] plucked (as opposed to bowed, on a string instrument).
plus [Fr] more.
pochissimo (pochiss.) [It] very little.
poco [It] little, somewhat.
poco a poco [It] little by little, gradually.
poi [It] then.
ponticello [It] bridge (of a string instrument).
portamento [It] slide from note to note.
pp, ppp... [It] pianissimo.
prestissimo [It] very fast, literally "fastest."
presto [It] fast, a tempo faster than allegro.
primo [It] principal, first.

B A C K to T O P



quasi [It] like, almost, in the manner of.

B A C K to T O P



rallentando (rall.) [It] gradually getting slower.
rf, rfz [It] rinforzando, rinforzato.
rinforzando, rinforzato (rf, rfz) [It] reinforcing.
risoluto [It] resolute.
ritardando (ritard. rit.) [It] gradually getting slower.
ritenuto (riten. rit.) [It] restrained.
ritmico [It] rhythmically.
rubato [It] literally, "robbed" - permission to "bend" the written rhythm.
Ruhe [Ger] calm, quiet.
ruhig [Ger] calmly, quietly, peacefully.

B A C K to T O P



scherzando [It] joking.
scherzo [It] literally, "joke" - fast tempo.
seconda, secondo [It] second.
segue [It] go straight on (e.g., into the next section).
sempre [It] always, still.
senza [It] without.
sforzando, sforzato (sf, sfz) [It] accented, forced.
simile [It] (carry on) similarly.
slentando [It] getting slower.
smorzando [It] dimming, fading, dying away.
sordino (sord., pl. sordini) [It] mute (on a brass or string instrument).
sostenuto [It] sustained.
sotto voce [It] in an undertone.
sourdine [Fr] mute.
spiccato [It] detached (stringed instruments).
staccatissimo [It] very short.
staccato [It] (stacc.) detached, short.
steigernd [Ger] gaining intensity.
stretto [It] quickening.
stringendo [It] gradually getting faster.
subito (sub.) [It] suddenly, immediately.
sul, sulla on the.

B A C K to T O P



tacet [Lat.] silent.
tasto [It] fingerboard (of a string instrument).
tempo [It] time or speed of a piece.
tempo giusto [It] in strict time.
tempo primo [It] first, or original tempo.
tenuto (ten.) [It] held, sustained.
tessitura [It] the general range, in pitch, of a composition, or of a particular voice in a composition. A composition with many high pitches would have a "high tessitura."
tranquillo [It] calm, tranquil.
tre corde [It] literally, "three strings" - direction to pianists to release the left pedal.
tremolo [It] rapid alternation between two notes or reiteration of one note.
très [Fr] very.
troppo [It] too much.
tutti [It] everybody, i.e., all (or nearly all) players in an ensemble.

B A C K to T O P



una corda [It] literally, "one string" - direction to pianists to depress the left pedal.
unisono (usu. unis.) [It] in unison, e.g., cancelling divisi.

B A C K to T O P



vibrato [It] vibrating.
vivace [It] lively, indicating a very fast tempo.
volti subito (V.S.) [It] quickly turn the page.

B A C K to T O P

W - Z

B A C K to T O P

O T H E R   O N L I N E   R E S O U R C E S
Rhythm & Meter: A Bibliographic Glossary Glossary of Musical Terms


Back to CyberHorn Museum Main Page

This is

HOME  ||   HornPage   |   St. Louis Brass   |   Opus 90   |   Bacon   | Golden Horn  |   Store   |   Food  ||   CONTACT

Copyright © Thomas Bacon
1996 - 2009
All rights reserved

Site Design by Horndog